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Item(s) found: 125
Power Lines: Race, Class, a City and Its Schools
Date CapturedThursday December 24 2015, 5:37 PM
A Successful Plan for Racial Balance Now Finds Its Future Uncertain
Date CapturedWednesday August 22 2007, 8:06 AM
NY Times reports, "White Plains’s plan takes pains to give parents genuine choices. In January and February, parents of entering kindergartners visit elementary schools and rank their top three picks. A family will get first choice, which 90 percent of families do, unless the number of applicants of that child’s race exceeds certain caps, which at a school with 100 kindergartners might be 13 blacks, 46 Hispanics, and 41 'others.' Should that happen, a lottery is held for all students in that racial group, with assigned numbers on colored slips of paper picked out of a basket at a public meeting. Remaining kindergartners get second choice or, rarely, third. Buses are provided for students living more than half a mile from school. The plan also balances assignments at the two campuses of the middle school."
Vouchers Could Desegregate Schools Better Than Buses
Date CapturedSaturday July 21 2007, 7:11 AM
Herbert J. Walberg, fellow of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and chairman of The Heartland Institute's board writes, "In late 2006, Gregg Forster reviewed seven valid research studies of voucher programs in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Washington, D.C., and concluded that each one showed that voucher-participating private schools were less racially segregated than public schools. Claims that vouchers would disadvantage poor and minority children, or children with special educational needs, or lead to greater segregation, are unsupported by the research on existing voucher programs. All the research instead points to the overwhelmingly positive effects."
Newburgh school district unsettled by Supreme Court decision
Date CapturedThursday July 19 2007, 8:59 AM
Times Herald-Record reports, ""The state Department of Education is reviewing the impact of the decision. The issue will come before the state Board of Regents Wednesday, Robert Bennett, chancellor of the Regents, said yesterday. Among the mid-Hudson's 34 school districts, only four have non-white populations exceeding 40 percent: Newburgh (66 percent), Middletown (65 percent), Fallsburg (43 percent) and Monticello (44 percent), according to the most recent state Report Card data. Newburgh is the only one under a desegregation order. It went into effect in 1975."
Utica schools to re-examine racial balance -- Utica schools to re-examine racial balance
Date CapturedMonday July 16 2007, 9:20 AM reports, "A recent Supreme Court decision could affect policies governing the Utica City School District's magnet program and its plans to redraw school attendance boundaries, school officials said. While school leaders say they will stay committed to creating diverse schools, the court's decision to strike down two other districts' integration plans worries some community members who wonder if the district will keep pushing to achieve racial balance in schools."
Schools Diversity Based on Income Segregates Some
Date CapturedSunday July 15 2007, 8:53 AM
NY Times reports, "San Francisco began considering factors like family income, instead of race, in school assignments when it modified a court-ordered desegregation plan in response to a lawsuit. But school officials have found that the 55,000-student city school district, with Chinese the dominant ethnic group followed by Hispanics, blacks and whites, is resegregrating."
Get back to basics in city schools
Date CapturedWednesday July 11 2007, 7:38 AM
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle Guest essayist Rev. Tommy Davis opines, "If we are to reform our schools, we must return to a method that applies academic truths through direct instruction and clear standards of excellence (high expectations) irrespective of race, gender or background."
Transferring Up
Date CapturedWednesday July 11 2007, 5:33 AM
NY Times op-ed contributor Jonathan Kozol opines, "Congress has an opportunity to take advantage of the opening created by Justice Kennedy later this year when it reauthorizes the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The law gives children the right to transfer from a low-performing school to a high-performing school if the low-performing school has failed to demonstrate adequate improvement two years after being warned of its shortcomings."
Educational equality slips from hands of students
Date CapturedTuesday July 10 2007, 9:07 AM
Louisiana Weekly Guest Commentary by U. S. Rep. Chaka Fattah, "The Student Bill of Rights will guarantee that all students have access to: * High quality teachers and school administrators * Rigorous academic curricula and methods of instruction * Small class sizes * Quality facilities, textbooks, instructional materials and supplies * Up-to-date library resources * Up-to-date computer technology * Quality guidance counseling
Suburbs need not fear school vouchers
Date CapturedSunday July 08 2007, 9:10 PM
Christian Science Monitor contributor Walt Gardner, former teacher and lecturer opines, "Emboldened by their ability to prevail in the courts, suburbanites aren't likely to relinquish their hold on maintaining local schools for themselves. They've worked too hard and too long to establish residency in communities where existing schools have garnered well-deserved reputations for educational quality. After all, they have as much of a right for their children to benefit from top-flight schools as parents from the inner cities do for their children."
Date CapturedMonday July 02 2007, 9:51 AM
NY Post Op-Ed contributor ANDREW J. COULSON director of the Cato Institute's Center for Educational Freedom opines, "A central goal of compulsory integration polices has been to achieve racial balance at the school level. But Harvard's Civil Rights Project has observed that public schools are little more racially integrated today than they were before such policies were introduced.
White Plains defends using race in school choice program
Date CapturedMonday July 02 2007, 8:59 AM
THE JOURNAL NEWS reports, "To assign students, officials consider race, ethnicity, gender, whether any siblings attend the school and whether space is available. Lotteries are held when the demand is too great at one school or for blacks, whites or Hispanics when one or more of the groups are underrepresented at a particular school. White Plains officials contend that's a different situation than in Louisville, where the mother of a student sued after her son was denied a transfer because his school needed to maintain its level of white students to meet the district's guidelines. In Seattle, parents filed suit when minority students were chosen over whites to attend a high school to maintain its racial balance. Because race is just one of several factors used to assign students, Connors said the district should not be affected by the court's narrow ruling."
Diverse community can turn around our segregated schools
Date CapturedMonday July 02 2007, 8:22 AM
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle opines, "City schools, unlike those in the suburbs, must deal with the social and economic impediments to learning such as poverty, joblessness and teen pregnancy. And they shouldn't be expected to go it alone if the district's abysmal graduation rate and poor test scores are to turn around. There must be a communitywide effort to improve city schools. Maybe that should be the new diversity model — all segments of the community pitching in."
Money, Not Race, Fuels New Push to Buoy Schools
Date CapturedSaturday June 30 2007, 11:13 AM
NY Times TAMAR LEWIN and DAVID M. HERSZENHORN report, "For several years, two lawyers intent on helping black children do as well in school as white children had a kind of roadshow: Michael A. Rebell would describe the recent successes of state-court litigation, forcing more financing for poor children’s schools, as a matter of basic equity. But James Ryan would argue that integration was the best approach. "
What Yesterday's Supreme Court Decision Means For NYC Schools
Date CapturedFriday June 29 2007, 6:44 PM
The Politicker's Andrew Mangino writes, "That profoundly insightful excerpt is proof that the court — or at least one middle-road justice on it – is trying to update the law for the 21st Century. Justice Kennedy here is calling for community forums to solve the issues with new solutions that consider race but do not give it more weight than it deserves at the cost of other factors ranging from heritage to economic background to ideological perspective. It is advice directly aimed at a city like New York."
Rescuing Brown v. Board of Education: Profiles of Twelve School Districts Pursuing Socioeconomic School Integration
Date CapturedFriday June 29 2007, 2:07 PM
By RICHARD D. KAHLENBERG, SENIOR FELLOW AT THE CENTURY FOUNDATION concludes, "Making American schools integrated is tough work, requiring strong political leadership and a sustained commitment to the promise of equal opportunity. The U.S. Supreme Court’s decisions in the Louisville and Seattle cases present new obstacles, but across the country, school districts are not giving up, and indeed, are coming up with an alternative that can be an even more powerful engine for social mobility."
Ruling on race and schools watched
Date CapturedFriday June 29 2007, 8:50 AM
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle reports, "A 5-4 U.S. Supreme Court ruling that voluntary race-based admission policies in Seattle and Louisville, Ky., schools are unconstitutional threatens Rochester's Urban-Suburban Interdistrict Transfer Program. But Fred Wille, superintendent of Monroe-BOCES I, says the decision won't shelve Rochester's program — the oldest voluntary school desegregation program in the United States. BOCES I coordinates it."
Use of Race in School Placement Curbed
Date CapturedThursday June 28 2007, 5:59 PM
NY Times reports, "In a decision of sweeping importance to educators, parents and schoolchildren across the country, the Supreme Court today sharply limited the ability of school districts to manage the racial makeup of the student bodies in their schools."
Arabic school fails the test
Date CapturedMonday May 14 2007, 8:34 AM
Daily News contributor Diane Ravitch, senior fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University and the Brookings Institution in Washington opines, "The American public school is supported by public tax dollars because it has an important role in American society. It is the one institution that is supposed to teach children to think critically about the world they live in and at the same time to prepare them to take responsibility as American citizens. The founders of American public education knew that our democratic experiment would survive only if the people were educated enough to participate in our democracy and to select wise leaders."
Newburgh's busing policy up to voters
Date CapturedWednesday May 09 2007, 8:46 AM
Times Herald-Record reports, "Every weekday, buses in the Newburgh School District move a small-town-sized mass of kids to and from school. Orange County's largest district shuttles more than 11,600 students (public, private, parochial and special needs) to 88 Hudson Valley facilities. It's a pricey undertaking. The proposed 2007-2008 pupil transportation budget is roughly $12.6 million, a 14 percent hike over this school year. That transportation slice accounts for about 6 percent of Newburgh's $203.71 budget proposition, which goes before the voters May 15."
District using busing information in study
Date CapturedMonday May 07 2007, 10:56 AM reports, "School district leaders will rely on computer software programs to study the city's student population."
Open top-grade downtown school
Date CapturedMonday May 07 2007, 10:43 AM
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle Op-Ed contributor Eric Bourgeois, member of Board of Contributors opines, "Working with local businesses (specifically those downtown) would be an invaluable experience for these students, and enable these businesses to create the next generation of leaders. Learning outside of the classroom along with internship opportunities would give Rochester a very talented pool of home-grown talent. Graduates would have built-in networking opportunities with the organizations with which they developed relationships during their schooldays."
Blaming the poor for their plight
Date CapturedSunday March 25 2007, 10:14 AM
Newsday Op-Ed contributor Amy Stuart Wells, Professor of sociology and education at Teachers College, Columbia University writes, "Indeed, what makes people poor is their lack of access to decent paying jobs in a service economy that pays well-educated and well-connected professionals extremely well and pays people with less formal education next to nothing - not to mention their lack of benefits, most importantly health care. What keeps people poor is the growing segregation between the rich or well-off in terms of where people live and send their children to school. As income gaps have grown and housing prices have exploded, people with money have been able to move farther away from those without. The exclusivity of these communities, protected by zoning ordinances, is the very factor that sends their property values even higher, making their residents and public schools wealthier still."
TUSD plan: Students stay near home
Date CapturedSaturday March 24 2007, 8:33 AM
Arizona Daily Star reports, "'In 1978, TUSD settled a class-action lawsuit filed by Hispanic and black parents. TUSD agreed to bus students across the city as well as establish magnet schools to racially integrate the district. By creating magnet schools with specific entrance criteria and prescribed ethnic balances, TUSD sought to entice some of its top students to leave their neighborhoods and further create integrated schools. Under the terms of the lawsuit, any changes to TUSD must be approved by a federal judge. The terms of the settlement gave TUSD five years to rectify the problem. The order still has not been lifted, though board members and Superintendent Roger Pfeuffer say they've done what they were ordered to do. TUSD also receives state funds for desegregation efforts. For the 2006-2007 school year, it received $62.4 million in state funds for desegregation. If unitary status is granted, according to state law, TUSD will continue to receive the money.'
The March Is Not Over
Date CapturedSaturday March 10 2007, 8:29 AM
WSJ contributor VIRGINIA WALDEN-FORD, executive director of D.C. Parents for School Choice writes, "The journey for more than 2,200 children, parents and families who have received school vouchers is just beginning. But like the previous generation of civil-rights leaders, we have not achieved our goals. Under current law, the D.C. opportunity scholarship program is scheduled to end on Dec. 31, 2008, which is the middle of school year 2008-2009. Democratic activists and politicians have promised to kill this program and, ultimately, our hopes and opportunities. Black families have overcome educational segregation before. With the help of Republicans in 1957 and 2003, we broke through the doors. Will the Democrats who now control Congress end our journey by sending us back to failing schools?"
The Mexican American Struggle for Equal Educational Opportunity in Mendez v. Westminster: Helping to Pave the Way for Brown v. Board of Education
Date CapturedWednesday March 07 2007, 11:46 AM
RICHARD R. VALENCIA, professor in the Department of Educational Psychology at the College of Education of the University of Texas at Austin writes, "Few people in the United States are aware of the central role that Mexican Americans have played in some of the most important legal struggles regarding school desegregation. The most significant such case is Mendez v. Westminster (1946), a class-action lawsuit filed on behalf of more than 5,000 Mexican American students in Orange County, California. The Mendez case became the first successful constitutional challenge to segregation. In fact, in Mendez the U.S. District Court judge ruled that the Mexican American students' rights were being violated under the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. The decision was affirmed by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. Although the Mendez case was never appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court, a number of legal scholars at that time hailed it as a case that could have accomplished what Brown eventually did eight years later: a reversal of the High Court's 1896 ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson, which had sanctioned legal segregation for nearly 60 years." Teachers College Record Volume 107 Number 3, 2005, p. 389-423 ID Number: 11792, Date Accessed: 3/7/2007 11:44:54 AM
The Segregation of American Teachers
Date CapturedWednesday February 21 2007, 9:44 AM
By Erica Frankenberg, M.Ed., is a Research Assistant at The Civil Rights Project and Professor Gary Orfield, Professor of Education and Social Policy and Director of the Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. "This report shows that in an increasingly segregated national system of schools, faculty segregation tends to add to — rather than counteract — the separation of students. We see that the white teachers, who continue to dominate the teaching profession, tend to grow up with little racial/ethnic diversity in their own education or experience. Not only did white teachers, on average, attend schools when they were elementary school students that were over 90% white, they are currently teaching in schools where almost 90% of their faculty colleagues are white and over 70% of students are white."
Eden Prairie, Minnesota district may redraw map to balance ethnicity
Date CapturedTuesday February 20 2007, 5:52 PM
Star Tribune reports, "Superintendent Melissa Krull said in a letter sent to parents earlier this month that the state will soon move to name Forest Hills Elementary School -- the district's most diverse school with nearly 40 percent students of color -- as a 'racially identifiable' school." ....."District Communications Director Camie Melton Hanily said the state's formula for racially identifiable schools is based on enrollment figures for students of color; if a school's nonwhite enrollment is more than 20 percentage points higher than that of surrounding schools, both inside and outside the district, it is considered racially identifiable. Hanily said the state has not contacted the district about Forest Hills' diversity numbers yet."
Keeping MLK's message alive in education
Date CapturedFriday January 12 2007, 9:40 AM
Ithaca Journal contributors Ithaca College MLK Scholar Courtney Clemente and Deborah Mohlenhoff, member of the MLK Community Celebration Committee and the coordinator of Community Service and Leadership Development for Ithaca College write, "On MLK Day 2007, we encourage you to act upon Dr. King's words as a change agent to level the playing field for all so that many are not left behind. In his Nobel Prize Lecture, Dr. King remarked, 'I have the audacity to believe that people everywhere can have three meals a day for their bodies, education and culture for their minds, and dignity, equality and freedom for their spirits.' To honor Dr. King's work around the issue of poverty, Tompkins Community Action will be running a poverty simulation at the community MLK Celebration to educate participants on what it means to live in poverty." The 13th annual celebration of the life and work of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. will be held Monday, Jan. 15.
NYCLU Urges Spitzer to Implement School-Based Reform, End School Segregation
Date CapturedSaturday January 06 2007, 11:04 PM
ACLU press release: "The recommendation that the state work to decrease racial inequality in the education system arises from Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation, a recent study of racial segregation in public schools, prepared by Gary Orfield and Chungmei Lee for the Harvard Civil Rights Project, which showed that '[t]he highest levels of black segregation [are] found in New York, Illinois, California and Michigan. In these states, the average black student attended schools with less than one-quarter white students in 2003.' The NYCLU urged the governor to adopt a vigorous program to combat school segregation, including introducing effective magnet schools and adopting transfer programs that foster integration."
Leaders Brace for Adverse School Ruling
Date CapturedTuesday January 02 2007, 11:14 PM
NNPA reports, "Although the U. S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of affirmative action in the University of Michigan Law School case three years ago and Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, Black leaders say affirmative action and school desegregation are among the most important issues facing Black America in 2007 – both being at risk. 'The Supreme Court is likely to issue a devastating opinion in the Seattle cases [this] year and it will possibly set back the premise of Brown v. Board of Education to provide quality education for all children,' says Harvard University law professor Charles Ogletree."
Many Nebraska lawmakers uncertain how to tackle education issues
Date CapturedSaturday December 30 2006, 9:42 AM
AP reports, "A survey of 49 state senators by The Associated Press revealed significant uncertainty about whether to reorganize elementary-only, known as Class I, school districts that were forced to merge with larger districts. Lawmakers seem uncertain about repealing a law that calls for dividing Omaha Public Schools into three districts, a move that has attracted lawsuits from some who argue it would further segregate whites and minorities in the city."
The meaning of Brown vs. the Board
Date CapturedMonday December 25 2006, 4:42 AM
LA Times contributor GOODWIN LIU, law professor at UC Berkeley and co-director of the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Race, Ethnicity and Diversity writes, "According to the U.S. government's brief opposing the integration plans, Brown 'held that intentionally classifying students on the basis of race violates the equal protection clause.' In oral arguments this month, this position won a sympathetic ear from Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr., who likened the children in Seattle and Louisville to the children in Brown because 'they're being assigned on the basis of their race.'"
The Best and Worst in Education, 2006
Date CapturedFriday December 22 2006, 8:12 AM
Richard D. Kahlenberg, Senior Fellow at The Century Foundation concludes, "In 2006, momentum appeared to build to take action on the fundamental economic divide that continues to riddle K-12 and higher education—the very institutions that, in America, are supposed to be the 'great equalizers.'”
Educators want to reopen 'Brown v. Board' school
Date CapturedFriday December 22 2006, 7:12 AM
USA TODAY reports, ""Brown's old neighborhood school, Sumner Elementary, has been shuttered for years. Two black Kansas educators want to turn it into a charter school for at-risk students, most of whom, they say, will be black or Hispanic. Their bid, which goes before the Topeka school board next month, has a certain symbolic importance: Not only would it reopen the landmark building, potentially to children of all races — it illustrates how far the discussion on race and schooling has moved since Brown."
Speaking Truth to Power on School Desegregation. Is Power Listening?
Date CapturedThursday December 21 2006, 8:24 AM
TC contributor Amy Stuart Wells, professor of sociology and education and the deputy director for research at the Campaign for Educational Equity at Teachers College, Columbia University, in New York City writes, "The Supreme Court will have until the end of June to rule in these cases. At the end of the day, these nine justices will have to decide whether the means used by these two school districts justified their goal of racially balanced schools. No one knows what role the social science research will ultimate play. If the court, especially Justice Kennedy, is bent on ending attempts by school districts or other government entities to acknowledge our country's history of racial inequality and segregation and create race-conscious programs to address that legacy, then they (and he) will do so, regardless of the evidence that this will result in far fewer educational opportunities for poor students of color."
Race-Based Programs May Face Final Curtain in Supreme Court
Date CapturedWednesday December 20 2006, 8:41 AM
Legal Times Tony Mauro writes, "In 1954, William Coleman Jr. sat next to Thurgood Marshall as he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court. In the same chamber on Dec. 4, Coleman, now 86, watched as the arc of the landmark Brown decision took a stunning turn. He heard the Brown decision being invoked as a possible reason for striking down modern-day efforts to keep public schools integrated. "I was shocked," said Coleman, now senior counselor at O'Melveny & Myers in Washington, D.C. 'It's the most ridiculous thing in the world.'"
There's another path to achieve school integration
Date CapturedTuesday December 19 2006, 6:15 AM
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle columnist Mark Hare writes, "Breaking the cycle of poverty is the way to bring the poor into the mainstream and help them build productive lives. I don't see an easy way to get there. But Richard Kahlenberg, of the New York City-based Century Foundation and a leading researcher on integrating the poor into middle class schools, writes that economic integration faces a much easier court test than racial integration and it typically achieves noticeable improvement — though not miracles — in minority performance. I know, I know. You've heard this from me before. But there is growing awareness that the key to breaking generations of urban poverty is to end the isolation of the poor. I support all the voluntary efforts to do this — all the churches and business providing tutors and mentors, shelters for teen mothers and battered spouses where routine and stability are cultivated as the building blocks of middle-class families. "
What helps kids learn?
Date CapturedTuesday December 12 2006, 9:48 AM
The News-Sentinel columnist Kevin Leininger’s writes, "With 77 languages spoken in Fort Wayne schools alone, it’s self-defeating not to acknowledge that while diversity can be an asset, it can also complicate the educational process. Segregating students into more easily taught homogeneous groups isn’t necessarily the answer. But with $8.6 million of last year’s FWCS budget of $181 million dedicated to achieving racial balance – and with the U.S. Supreme Court reviewing race-based admission policies in Seattle and Louisville – we should at least be willing to discuss whether the quality of education has been helped or hindered by the social expectations heaped upon our schools."
Clarity needed on race in schools
Date CapturedSaturday December 09 2006, 6:47 PM
Cincinnati Enquirer reports, "U.S. Supreme Court justices on Monday plunged back into the divisive issue of reverse discrimination by hearing Louisville and Seattle school cases over assigning students on the basis of their skin color. The original lawsuits were brought by white parents denied their first choice of schools. The court's decision could affect hundreds of districts, including those in Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky, where many public school districts are even more racially imbalanced than in Louisville and Seattle."
High court takes a different look at school desegregation
Date CapturedThursday December 07 2006, 6:26 AM
The Journal News opines, "Hundreds of classroom integration programs across the nation, including one in the Lower Hudson Valley, could be in jeopardy if the U.S. Supreme Court's initial take on two test cases this week is an indication. The cases, out of Seattle and Louisville, were brought by white parents whose children did not get the schools of their choice due to racial considerations in forming the student bodies."
Black, white and Brown
Date CapturedWednesday December 06 2006, 7:37 AM
LA Times opines, "Breyer has the better of the argument. Taking account of race to bring children of different backgrounds together is fundamentally different from using race to keep those children apart. Is there a ray of hope that Kennedy, the likely swing vote in these cases, will agree?"
'Resegregation' of Metro schools cited at high court
Date CapturedTuesday December 05 2006, 8:50 AM
The Tennessean reports, "Smrekar [associate professor of public policy and education at Vanderbilt University] said Metro Nashville's schools have become drastically unbalanced since the race-based requirements were abandoned. Metro Nashville has about 72,000 students, 37.8 percent of which are white, 46.5 percent black, 12.1 Hispanic, 3.4 percent Asian and less than 1 percent Native American or Pacific Islander. 'Nashville has more single-race schools in the district because they have removed race as an element in assigning students,' she said. 'Without a race-conscious policy, you get resegregation.' Since the end of desegregation, the district is home not only to more single-race schools, but also to more schools with a high poverty rate. And with a high poverty rate comes inequality, Smrekar said."
Court Reviews Race as Factor in School Plans
Date CapturedTuesday December 05 2006, 3:20 AM
NY Times reports, "By the time the Supreme Court finished hearing arguments on Monday on the student-assignment plans that two urban school systems use to maintain racial integration, the only question was how far the court would go in ruling such plans unconstitutional. There seemed little prospect that either the Louisville, Ky., or Seattle plans would survive the hostile scrutiny of the court’s new majority. In each system, students are offered a choice of schools but can be denied admission based on their race if enrolling at a particular school would upset the racial balance."
Court justices wrestle with desegregation arguments
Date CapturedMonday December 04 2006, 2:40 PM
USA TODAY reports, "The Supreme Court today stepped into the debate over voluntary public school integration plans, with justices questioning whether programs in two districts are an acceptable move toward student diversity or another name for illegal racial quotas. In separate arguments involving school districts in Seattle and Louisville, justices referred repeatedly to a 2003 Supreme Court ruling that permitted the limited consideration of race to attain a diverse student body on the college level."
High Court Will Hear School-Integration Arguments
Date CapturedMonday December 04 2006, 8:07 AM
NPR reports, "The Supreme Court will hear arguments Monday that challenge voluntary school-integration programs in the Seattle and Louisville, Ky., school districts. Courts have played a pivotal role in desegregating the public schools since the 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education ruling."
An Assault on Local School Control
Date CapturedMonday December 04 2006, 6:54 AM
NY Times opines, "It is startling to see the Justice Department, which was such a strong advocate for integration in the civil rights era, urging the court to strike down the plans. Its position is at odds with so much the Bush administration claims to believe. The federal government is asking federal courts to use the Constitution to overturn educational decisions made by localities. Conservative activists should be crying 'judicial activism,' but they do not seem to mind this activism with an anti-integration agenda. If these plans are struck down, many other cities’ plans will most likely also have to be dismantled. In Brown, a unanimous court declared education critical for a child to 'succeed in life' and held that equal protection does not permit it to be provided on a segregated basis. It would be tragic if the court changed directions now and began using equal protection to re-segregate the schools."
Cases retread Brown vs. Board of Education steps
Date CapturedMonday December 04 2006, 5:53 AM
LA Times reports, "With the arrival of Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. and Justice Samuel A. Alito Jr., civil rights lawyers believe there may be a five-member majority determined to strike down race-based integration programs."
Historic case in the balance
Date CapturedSunday December 03 2006, 6:54 AM
Newsday TOM BRUNE writes, "At the heart of the battle over the school integration case being heard by the Supreme Court is the legacy of the 1954 landmark decision in Brown v. Topeka Board of Education. For the Seattle and Louisville, Ky., school districts, which are being sued, that question becomes whether their goal of racial and ethnic diversity is valid, and whether it justifies using a student's race to create integrated schools."
The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education
Date CapturedSaturday December 02 2006, 7:50 AM
The Benefits of Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Elementary and Secondary Education: A Briefing Before The United States Commission on Civil Rights Held in Washington, D.C., July 28, 2006 Briefing Report, "Based on the record, the Commission issued a number of findings, including: • There is little evidence that racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary schools results in significant improvements in academic performance; • Studies on the effect of school racial composition on academic achievement often suggest modest and inconsistent benefits; • Studies of whether racial and ethnic diversity result in significant social and noneducational benefits report varied results; • Much of the early research indicating educational benefits resulting from racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary schools suffered from serious methodological weaknesses; • A preliminary review of data on the overall relationship between school racial composition and student achievement as measured by the 2003 National Assessment of Educational Progress scores does not indicate a consistent strong relationship between the two after controlling for socioeconomic status; • While there are many research studies indicating that desegregated schooling is associated with higher educational and occupational aspirations , and to a modest degree, attainment for African-American students, methodological weaknesses in these studies make it difficult to isolate school racial composition as the cause of these aspirations and attainments; • While recent studies examining the relationship between desegregation and future wages found a small positive relationship after controlling for self-selection bias, research evidence on the relationship of school racial composition and actual wages is less definitive; • More recent surveys have indicated generally positive reactions to school desegregation, such as cross-racial friendships and greater understanding of racial and cultural differences, but some of these surveys do not definitively identify a causal relationship between the two."
Government Commission Questions School Desegregation Programs
Date CapturedSaturday December 02 2006, 7:29 AM
The New Standard reports, "A new government report that questions the merits of active school desegregation has met with harsh criticism from civil-rights groups. The report, released this week by the US Commission on Civil Rights, argues that racial and ethnic diversity in elementary and secondary schools does not significantly contribute to academic improvement. The Commission is an 'independent,' bipartisan agency established by Congress in 1957. It is charged with monitoring federal civil-rights enforcement."
Toss single-sex classrooms in the dustbin of history
Date CapturedFriday December 01 2006, 8:36 AM
Star-Telegram Bob Ray Sanders writes, "The relaxing of federal Title IX rules, which require equal education for boys and girls, will permit districts to develop more single-sex programs. What seems inherent in all of them is smaller schools and classes where more individual attention is given to students' needs."
A New Way on School Integration
Date CapturedThursday November 30 2006, 8:08 AM
This term, the U.S. Supreme Court is considering challenges in two school districts to the constitutionality of voluntary racial school integration plans in elementary and secondary education. In the latest issue brief from the Century Foundation, Richard D. Kahlenberg discusses the possible effects of the court's decision.
A Slide Toward Segregation
Date CapturedWednesday November 29 2006, 8:14 AM
Washington Post Ruth Marcus writes, "A half-century after Brown v. Board of Education, it's come, amazingly, to this: The Supreme Court, in the name of preventing race discrimination, is being asked to stop local schools from voluntarily adopting plans to promote integration."
Ohio districts experiment with single-gender public schools
Date CapturedFriday November 24 2006, 9:41 AM
Lancaster Eagle Gazette reports, "Some proponents of single-sex schools say they minimize distractions, help students focus on academics and encourage students to be less self-conscious and have higher self-esteem. Others say the two genders learn differently and need gender-specific instruction. Critics compare the trend to the 'separate but equal' segregation-era classrooms."
Ruling: Texas classes divided by race
Date CapturedSaturday November 18 2006, 7:05 AM
Dallas Morning News reports, "For years, it was an open secret at North Dallas' Preston Hollow Elementary School: Even though the school was overwhelmingly Hispanic and black, white parents could get their children into all-white classes. And once placed, the students would have little interaction with the rest of the students. The result, a federal judge has ruled, was that principal Teresa Parker was,' in effect, operating, at taxpayer's expense, a private school for Anglo children within a public school that was predominantly minority.'"
School settles lawsuit alleging racism in sports
Date CapturedThursday November 16 2006, 6:19 PM
AP reports, "A federal civil rights lawsuit alleging that the breakup of a suburban Chicago high school athletic league resulted in racial segregation has been settled, an attorney said Wednesday. The agreement averts a trial that would have pitted predominantly black schools in the former South Inter-Conference Association against schools with mostly white students."
Separation anxiety: Segregating schools by gender is unwise
Date CapturedTuesday November 14 2006, 9:27 AM
The Battalion Online Amanda Kaiser opined, "Proposing use of the education system to experiment with any arrangement not solidly supported by research is a sick and expensive joke, considering the abundance of problems with clear answers that remain unsolved. Changes to Title IX fail to address the real problems in education, and by deepening the divisions by which groups are segregated, these changes open the door for inequality. Lawmakers and educators should be striving for a system with fewer arbitrary divisions where students have equal opportunity to learn together."
Justices to weigh school diversity
Date CapturedTuesday November 14 2006, 7:25 AM
USA TODAY reports, "The school districts in Louisville and Seattle are at the heart of a pair of legal disputes, now before the U.S. Supreme Court, that test whether public schools can use race as a factor in determining where students go to school. The cases, to be heard by the court Dec. 4, have drawn national attention because they could affect policies in districts across the country. The key legal question in the Louisville and Seattle lawsuits — which were filed by parents of white students who weren't allowed to attend the schools of their choice — is whether school-assignment plans that use students' race as a factor violate the Constitution's guarantee of equality."
Educators Want to Turn Former All-White School Into Charter
Date CapturedWednesday November 08 2006, 1:06 PM
AP reports, "Two educators want to locate charter schools in the former all-white school in Topeka that led to the Brown versus Board of Education case."
Kozol calls for education reform
Date CapturedWednesday November 08 2006, 9:02 AM
The Northern Light (Alaska) reports, "Kozol frequently urged teachers to teach students in ways that celebrated learning, life and love, and not to be 'drill instructors for the state.' He said that NCLB misses the point of what teaching is really about. 'You won’t find the words love, joy, spontaneity or compassion in NCLB – I’ve looked,' he said."
Separating the Sexes
Date CapturedMonday November 06 2006, 7:18 AM
The UCSD Guardian reports, "The new regulations are such that one sex can have its own school, as long as there is a 'substantially equal' co-ed equivalent. This means it is acceptable for an all-boy school to be started - without an all-girl school - so long as there is a co-ed school in the area. This raises many questions about equality of opportunities for the genders. In theory the rules are designed to adhere to Title IX, but in practice this design seems a little too similar to 'separate but equal.' History clearly shows that separate almost never guarantees equal."
422 would repeal Nebraska Class I schools consolidation
Date CapturedWednesday November 01 2006, 9:40 AM
Daily Nebraskan reports, "Referendum 422 supporters say forced consolidation renders small communities incapable of having accessible schools that are sensitive to a rural community's needs. But perhaps the opposition's biggest concern is focused on the idea that LB126 has eliminated the ability of rural communities to dictate how its community education should operate."
Are Single-Sex Classrooms Legal?
Date CapturedSunday October 29 2006, 7:46 AM
U.S.News & World Report writes, "But on October 24, the Department of Education announced new Title IX regulations based on the guidelines of a No Child Left Behind amendment. Old regulations allowed for same-gender classes only in rare cases like physical education and human sexuality classes. But lawmakers in 2001 wanted to make those rules more flexible, and so the new ones expand that option to any class or school that can prove gender separation leads to improved student achievement. The change could lead to a wave of single-sex classrooms and even schools in public systems across the country. But it will also likely lead to legal challenges."
Atlanta, Georgia schools move to gender divide
Date CapturedFriday October 27 2006, 4:53 PM
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reports, "Atlanta forged ahead before the rules came down from the federal government because officials were confident their schools would pass legal muster, Barnes [Atlanta schools administrator overseeing single-gender schools] said. 'We're being careful in the planning process to make sure both schools provide an equitable education," he said. "We were never concerned that we would face a legal challenge.' Parents who oppose the idea will be offered transfers to other schools. But so far, officials say parents have been overwhelmingly supportive, saying they think their kids will have fewer distractions. The plan has other supporters as well. More than 160 educators have applied for each of the principal positions."
California's single-sex experiment short lived
Date CapturedWednesday October 25 2006, 8:18 AM
San Francisco Chronicle reports, "A Ford Foundation study in 2001 concluded that the experiment [$5 million pilot program] had been a failure -- not because single-sex education as a concept was bad, but because the programs were often badly carried out, with teachers poorly trained in gender issues and little state funding. The researchers from Berkeley, San Diego and Toronto concluded that the schools had closed too soon for them to know if girls and boys benefited from the separate classrooms. They did, however, interview more than 300 participants and found that gender stereotypes were often reinforced under California's program."
New rule on gender, education not a big deal in Monroe County
Date CapturedWednesday October 25 2006, 6:37 AM
Rochester Democrat and Chronicle reports, "The National Organization of Women says the segregation creates the risk of breeding second-class citizens. The American Association of University Women has said it would 'throw out the most basic legal standards prohibiting sex discrimination in education.' Since 1975, same-sex classes have been allowed in public schools nationwide in limited cases, such as sex-education or gym classes."
The Children Left Behind
Date CapturedTuesday October 24 2006, 7:44 AM
The Cornell Daily Sun contributor Laura Taylor, a senior in the School of Industrial and Labor Relations at Cornell University writes, "The achievement gap between whites and Latinos and blacks is staggering. At the end of high school, black and Latino students have reading and mathematics skills that are roughly the same as white students in eighth grade. Beyond that, black students are half as likely as white students to have a college degree by age 29, and Latinos are only one third as likely."
Schools may isolate some foreign students
Date CapturedSunday October 22 2006, 9:02 AM
Sun-Sentinel reports, "Some St. Lucie County [Florida] children speaking languages other than English at home may find themselves at an immersion institute next year to boost their literacy skills. But some parents say the plan smacks of segregation for foreign-born kids. Top testing, finance and facilities officials are working on key details of the plan that effectively might pool some Hispanic and other foreign children together and keep their FCAT scores off some schools' books. If the plan moves forward, it could change based on funding and classroom space."
Date CapturedMonday October 16 2006, 10:23 PM
The Wilmington Journal prints the testimony of Rev. Dr. William J. Barber II, President of NC NAACP To the North Carolina State Board of Education, in Goldsboro, September 7, 2006.
Former U.S. education secretaries file brief supporting Jefferson County Public Schools desegregation policy
Date CapturedThursday October 12 2006, 7:53 PM
Business First of Louisville reports, "The Supreme Court will decide whether school districts can consider race when assigning students to schools in an effort to maintain diversity."
New Jersey county districts could diversify schools
Date CapturedThursday October 05 2006, 10:37 AM
Star-Ledger reports, "Corzine [New Jersey governor] said he is not supporting local government or school district consolidation as a way to confront segregation in New Jersey schools, but he sees it as a side benefit of consolidation in the interest of property tax relief."
Wisconsin Desegregation NewsTracker
Date CapturedMonday September 18 2006, 8:17 AM
The Journal Times reports, "More than two-thirds of Racine Unified's [Wisconsin] school buildings wouldn't comply with a proposed desegregation policy based on student enrollment data from last school year."
In New Jersey, a Community Divided
Date CapturedSunday September 17 2006, 9:35 PM
NY Times reports, "The state’s findings made no mention of religion, but the American Civil Liberties Union of New Jersey, which made the initial complaint to the state, did. It said that the school catered to the Orthodox, who rarely send their children to school with those who are not Orthodox. This summer, when the State Department of Education ordered the district to correct the special-education disparity and the district appealed the order to the education commissioner, a big rift in Lakewood grew bigger. It is a rift that has deepened in recent years as a group that once had little to do with public institutions began to join them, electing its members to a majority of school board seats and two of the five township committee seats."
289 Philadelphia children take taxi to school - to tune of $15,000 a year each
Date CapturedThursday September 14 2006, 9:22 AM
Philadelphia Daily News reports, "Of the 289 students who receive taxicab service, 259 of them get special-education services for medical, emotional or other reasons."
Desegregation, Test Score Mandates Leave Schools In Lurch
Date CapturedWednesday September 13 2006, 8:31 PM reports on local North Carolina schools and NCLB, "Nationwide, 293 school systems are under desegregation orders. The U.S. Department of Education said Wednesday that nothing in the No Child Left Behind Act provides a school district with the authority to violate an applicable desegregation plan. On the other hand, they said the regulation clear clearly states that the existence of such a plan doesn't permit a district to avoid providing public school choice."
Segregated schools: New debate, old problem
Date CapturedTuesday September 12 2006, 7:12 AM
USA TODAY DeWayne Wickham opined, "In essence, this 1974 ruling gave whites who flee to the suburbs the cover they needed to perpetuate the school segregation that the high court outlawed 20 years earlier, many of the panelists argued. In 1935, W.E.B. DuBois, the black sociologist and civil rights activist, wrote that 'the Negro needs neither segregated schools nor mixed schools. What he needs is (a good) Education.' Chambers thinks DuBois is right — and so do I."
Let Schools 'Look Like America,' Too
Date CapturedFriday September 08 2006, 7:49 AM
LA Times opined, "The administration [Justice Department] is telling the court that school systems that place a priority on diversity violate the 'equal protection of the laws' guaranteed by the 14th Amendment. In his brief, Clement argues that'"the use of a racial classification to achieve a desired racial balance in public schools' is just as unconstitutional as old-fashioned racial segregation."
NAACP, school leaders meet in Wayne County, North Carolina
Date CapturedThursday September 07 2006, 10:25 PM
News 14 Carolina reports, "The topic of segregation came up at a state Board of Education meeting Thursday. The board was in Wayne County touring some of the lowest-performing schools in the state that a judge threatened to shut down. It was a chance for North Carolina’s NCAAP leader to tell members that issues of segregation can no longer be ignored."
Local New Jersey NAACP reacts to racial school probe
Date CapturedThursday September 07 2006, 8:59 AM
Asbury Park Press reports, "The ACLU contends there was a pattern of segregation in how Lakewood refers special-education preschoolers to out-of-district schools."
California Bill Renews Debate Over Helping English Learners
Date CapturedFriday September 01 2006, 9:42 AM
LA Times reports, "While the legislation has gained wide support, it has also become a symbol of the fierce philosophical clash over English instruction in California, with many opponents, including Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, insisting that the option would lead to lower standards and segregation of students based on English ability."
Houston, Texas schools minority report
Date CapturedWednesday August 30 2006, 6:24 PM
The Dothan Eagle reports, "Hiring and promoting minorities is the Houston County Schools’ last obstacle before coming out from under a federal desegregation order. A competitive labor market and convincing minorities fresh-out-of-college to locate to a rural area is making this tough."
Administration backs white school parents in integration appeal
Date CapturedFriday August 25 2006, 2:40 PM
San Francisco Chronicle publishes LA Times report, "For decades afterward [Brown vs. Board of Education], school districts across the nation adopted policies to bring about racial integration in their classrooms: Some set enrollment guidelines that prevented schools from becoming nearly all black or all white, while others have used magnet programs that consider a student's race. Many of those policies remain in effect. Clement, the Bush administration's chief lawyer before the high court, said such programs should be struck down whenever they involve the use of a 'racial classification' to decide who may enroll."
School-integration effort targeted
Date CapturedFriday August 25 2006, 9:33 AM
The Olympian publishes LA Times report, "In the briefs, Solicitor General Paul Clement urged the justices to rule that "the use of a racial classification to achieve a desired racial balance in public schools" is just as unconstitutional as old-fashioned racial segregation."
Banish The Bling: A Culture of Failure Taints Black America
Date CapturedMonday August 21 2006, 4:44 PM
Washington Post Op-Ed contributor Juan Williams, senior correspondent for National Public Radio, political analyst for Fox News and author writes, "The defining challenge for this generation of Americans dealing with poverty is putting the next generation in a position to move even higher. Individuals must now use the opportunities made available to them by the sacrifices of past generations if they are to achieve victory in America's long and still unfinished civil rights movement."
Date CapturedMonday August 21 2006, 7:03 AM
NY Post editorial opined on academic achievement and enrollment at CUNY and elite schools, "Lowering admissions standards at elite public high schools - in other words, admitting students who are not able to handle a deliberately difficult and challenging workload - will hardly prepare those students for academically elite colleges and universities."
Nebraska seeks dismissal of NAACP lawsuit
Date CapturedSaturday August 19 2006, 9:15 AM
AP reports, "State officials on Friday sought the dismissal of an NAACP lawsuit challenging a Nebraska law that it says amounts to state-supported segregation in public schools."
Minority Students Decline in Top New York Schools
Date CapturedFriday August 18 2006, 8:01 AM
NY Times ELISSA GOOTMAN reports, "More than a decade after the city created a special institute to prepare black and Hispanic students for the mind-bendingly difficult test that determines who gets into New York’s three most elite specialized high schools, the percentage of such students has not only failed to rise, it has declined."
California charter school makes efforts to ward off charges of elistism
Date CapturedWednesday August 09 2006, 10:28 AM
Santa Cruz Sentinel reports, "Since PCS opened in 1999, it has been dogged with charges of elitism. Its student body is overwhelmingly white and the average student's family often donates more than $1,000 a year, even though it's a public school. Half the students in the county are Latino, but PCS has a Latino population of just 5 percent."
Louisiana school board drops single sex plan
Date CapturedFriday August 04 2006, 8:41 AM
AP reports, "The movement for single-sex classrooms has grown from four public schools in 1998 to at least 223 this year, according to the National Association for Single Sex Public Education. Single-sex classroom supporters argue that boys and girls learn differently, and separating them can help both do better. Critics compare it to 'separate but equal' segregation-era classrooms."
Scholarship idea is not a big opportunity for blacks
Date CapturedMonday July 31 2006, 10:18 PM
USA Today DeWayne Wickham opined, "This latest voucher scheme, if implemented, would likely give a small percentage of students in underperforming schools an escape hatch. The rest would serve as guinea pigs for conservatives' argument that such a program will pressure public schools into doing a better job of educating those who are left behind."
End busing and improve education in Tennessee
Date CapturedTuesday July 18 2006, 7:28 AM
Jackson Sun op-ed, "These kiddy pawns will be shuffled from thither to yon into strange neighborhood schools, not to get an education, but because of the amount of melanin in their skins."
Brown Vs. Board of Education
Date CapturedMonday July 17 2006, 7:45 AM
Times Union reprints 1954 editorial, "The decision of the United States Supreme Court banning racial segregation in public schools is one of the great historical moments in the growth of this nation. The 9-0 unanimity of opinion among the justices, and the profound and quiet reasoning behind it, provides the decision with its proper frame of dignity and constitutional wisdom."
How Jersey became the land of so many towns -- and taxes
Date CapturedSunday July 16 2006, 7:46 PM
Star-Ledger reports, "Some school districts were formed to ensure racial segregation."
Best way to teach English skills argued
Date CapturedSaturday July 15 2006, 3:54 PM
Sacremento Bee reports, "One side insists students new to English should learn to read and write in a way that's geared toward non-native English speakers. They've yet to develop specifics, but advocates say the approach would incorporate more pictures, written passages with simple syntax, common vocabulary and less academic English. The other side demands all children learn to read and write the same way, whether English is native to them or they're just learning the language. They argue that reading and writing lessons geared for English learners would amount to state-sanctioned segregation."
“Does Segregation Still Matter? The Impact of Social Composition on Academic Achievement in High School”
Date CapturedWednesday June 28 2006, 10:26 AM
Russell Rumberger with Gregory Palardy. Teachers College Record, 107 (2005), 1999-2045. This article addresses the question of whether school characteristics can be changed by policies to reform schools and funding systems versus policies to desegregate schools.
Jackson calls for massive rally to support school desegregation
Date CapturedTuesday June 27 2006, 11:37 PM
Schools' Efforts on Race Await Justices' Ruling
Date CapturedSaturday June 24 2006, 7:59 AM
NY Times registration
Judge plans fall trial in Alabama's college desegregation case
Date CapturedThursday June 22 2006, 7:59 PM
Race is still part of equation for equal education
Date CapturedSunday June 18 2006, 9:29 PM
It's discrimination. It's wrong.
Date CapturedSunday June 18 2006, 9:15 PM
Denver Public Schools: Resegregation, Latino Style
Date CapturedWednesday June 14 2006, 7:50 AM
By Chungmei Lee, The Civil Rights Project. This paper, the first of two reports, focuses on the dynamics of segregation, demographic changes, and implications for graduation rates in the Denver Public Schools. The relationship of the dramatic demographic changes to segregation trends is examined by measuring the average exposure of students to all racial groups, as well as to each other and the concentration of students in racially isolated schools during the five years preceding the 1995 Keyes decision and in the eight subsequent years following.
Equitable racial balance sought
Date CapturedMonday June 12 2006, 8:41 AM
Race's enduring impact on public education
Date CapturedWednesday June 07 2006, 8:07 AM
School choice and resegregation in California
Date CapturedMonday May 29 2006, 8:35 AM
The Choice is Ours: Expanding Educational Opportunity for all Twin Cities Children
Date CapturedWednesday May 24 2006, 8:40 AM
A new report by the Institute on Race & Poverty (IRP) at the University of Minnesota reveals the disturbing extent of school segregation in the Twin Cities region. The authors of the report envision a brighter future if an already successful school choice program is expanded. The report, “The Choice Is Ours: Expanding Educational Opportunity for all Twin Cities Children,” describes how economic and racial segregation harms children and the region.
Is Segregation Undermining NYC Schools?
Date CapturedThursday May 18 2006, 7:28 PM
Schools Plan in Nebraska Is Challenged (NY Times registration)
Date CapturedWednesday May 17 2006, 8:11 AM
NAACP sues to block Omaha redistricting
Date CapturedTuesday May 16 2006, 6:47 PM
Persistent Challenge: Desegregating Urban Schools
Date CapturedWednesday May 03 2006, 12:09 AM
Separate school facilities are inherently unequal
Date CapturedMonday May 01 2006, 11:49 AM
‘Re-segregated’ Omaha Schools to be Separate, Not Equal
Date CapturedFriday April 21 2006, 7:56 AM
Segregation may still be far from over
Date CapturedWednesday April 19 2006, 11:32 PM
After 40 Years, Mississippi County Desegregation Decree Lifted
Date CapturedTuesday April 11 2006, 9:24 AM
Parents say new leagues rob kids of cultural experiences
Date CapturedTuesday April 11 2006, 8:29 AM
Federal Lawsuit Charges 'White Flight' In League Breakup
Date CapturedTuesday April 11 2006, 7:25 AM
Suit slams school league breakup
Date CapturedMonday April 10 2006, 9:56 AM
Kansas busing decision needed soon
Date CapturedTuesday January 24 2006, 9:32 AM
Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation
Date CapturedSunday January 15 2006, 9:04 AM
By Gary Orfield and Chungmei Lee. THE CIVILS RIGHTS PROJECT, HARVARD UNIVERSITY. January, 2006.
A Multiracial Society with Segregated Schools: Are We Losing the Dream?
Date CapturedMonday December 12 2005, 12:04 PM
By Erica Frankenberg, Chungmei Lee, and Gary Orfield. THE CIVIL RIGHTS PROJECT, HARVARD UNIVERSITY. January, 2003.

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